Are ballet companies different when led by a female artistic director?
Before becoming its artistic director, Karen Kain danced for every director in National Ballet of Canada’s history, then staged ballets, did fundraising and observed the administrative offices under her predecessor James Kudelka. But she wasn’t ambitious for the top job.
Although she had a strong female role model in founder and first director Celia Franca, Kain says she didn’t have huge confidence in her own management abilities. “I may have been naïve, but back then I was happy to be learning and to support James,” says Kain. “I didn’t necessarily think he was grooming me.”
Julie Kent, pictured at ADC|IBC 2016 just months after her appointment as the new Artistic Director of The Washington Ballet
While ballet has always put a premium on female dancers, until recently few companies looked to women for the leading job. But there are some exciting changes today, from major appointments like Julie Kent at The Washington Ballet, to international ones like Aurélie Dupont at Paris Opéra Ballet and regional ones like Hope Muir at Charlotte Ballet. Will having more female directors have an impact on the field? Of course, leadership qualities vary from woman to woman. But many female directors share a history of creative perseverance, which can give them a desire to listen and learn from the limits placed on them. Besides acting as role models, these women often bring a more open-minded management style to an industry infamous for its stiff hierarchical history.
A Wealth of Experience
For decades, former ballerinas watched as principal men transitioned straight into artistic directorships, often without any outside job experience in-between, while the few exceptional women who made it usually did so with dazzling and varied resumés. The result is that most women who helm companies right now arrived with finely tuned visions. For example, when Lourdes Lopez took the reins of Miami City Ballet in 2012, she’d spent time reporting on the arts for television, managing The George Balanchine Foundation as its executive director and co-founding the contemporary ballet company Morphoses with Christopher Wheeldon.
Virginia Johnson founded Pointe magazine (Dance Magazine’s sister publication) before relaunching Dance Theatre of Harlem’s company. Dorothy Gunther Pugh of Ballet Memphis earned a degree from Vanderbilt University and a fellowship from the Center for Social Innovation at Stanford University Graduate School of Business.
“At one time, the few women running ballet companies of some size in America—Victoria Morgan, Stoner Winslett and myself—we all had college degrees, which was sort of unusual for artistic directors anywhere,” says Pugh. “Did we have a different inclination from men that made us want a different toolset to enter that world? I don’t know, but I was interested in so many things and knew I needed to be a leader.”
Likewise, Emily Molnar felt the pull of leadership early on, but spent 10 years exploring various artistic management opportunities first: She ran a youth company, and worked as a solo artist and freelance choreographer. She feels these outside experiences influence the way she directs her dancers at Ballet BC today. “I am not interested in a top-down or fear-based structure,” she says. After organizing a retreat for her dancers recently, Molnar has begun to ask them more about what they need and how they can contribute to the company. “Who wants to teach? Who wants to choreograph? Who wants to lead? We sat together, not producing work but discussing the vision they have for themselves and for the company,” says Molnar. “Innovation comes not only from the stage but also the culture in which we make the work.”
An Eye for Diversity
Because they know the so-called glass ceiling so intimately, many female directors are serious about fostering diversity in ballet. For instance, Johnson is reinvigorating DTH with “Women Who Move Us,” an initiative aimed at fostering new work by female choreographers of diverse backgrounds. At English National Ballet, Tamara Rojo recently presented a triple bill by Annabelle Lopez Ochoa, Aszure Barton and Yabin Wang, provocatively titled “She Said.”
Since arriving at Grand Rapids in 2010, Patricia Barker has brought 50 works into the repertoire, more than half of them by women, including Ochoa’s first full-length ballet. “The previous director was a choreographer and he took all of his work with him, which left nothing in the repertoire,” she explains. Bark